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<g4'd'dtb0lbx p@pp?%O=>Chapter 7Chemical Quantities .Charles Page High School
Dr. Stephen L. Cotton//"wBSection 7.1The Mole: A Measurement of MatterOBJECTIVES:
Describe how Avogadro s number is related to a mole of any substance.*F$F$.xCSection 7.1The Mole: A Measurement of Matter:OBJECTIVES:
Calculate the mass of a mole of any substance.*/$/$
What is a Mole?You can measure mass,
or volume,
or you can count pieces.
We measure mass in grams.
We measure volume in liters.
We count pieces in MOLES. $$$$
$$$$$$$,,Moles (abbreviated: mol)jDefined as the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12.
1 mole is 6.02 x 1023 particles.
Treat it like a very large dozen
6.02 x 1023 is called Avogadro s number.N\$
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Representative particlesThe smallest pieces of a substance.
For a molecular compound: it is the molecule.
For an ionic compound: it is the formula unit (ions).
For an element: it is the atom.
Remember the 7 diatomic elements (made of molecules)J$5$$$4$$?Types of questions
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&g4'd'dtb0lbx p@pp?%O=8Chapter 7Chemical Quantities .Charles Page High School
Dr. Stephen L. Cotton//"vB
> How can we measure how much ?You can measure mass,
or volume,
or you can count pieces.
We measure mass in grams.
We measure volume in liters.
We count pieces in MOLES. $$$$
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LEdqA4:FQb:F Chapter 7Chemical Quantities .Charles Page High School
Dr. Stephen L. Cotton//"vB
> How can we measure how much ?You can measure mass,
or volume,
or you can count pieces.
We measure mass in grams.
We measure volume in liters.
We count pieces in MOLES. $$$$
$$$$$$$,,Moles (mol)jDefined as the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12.
1 mole is 6.02 x 1023 particles.
Treat it like a very large dozen
6.02 x 1023 is called Avogadro s number.N\$
$7$
$$(
Representative particlesThe smallest pieces of a substance.
For a molecular compound: it is the molecule.
For an ionic compound: it is the formula unit (ions).
For an element: it is the atom.
Remember the 7 diatomic elements (made of molecules)J$5$$$4$$?Types of questionslHow many oxygen atoms in the following?
CaCO3
Al2(SO4)3
How many ions in the following?
CaCl2
NaOH
Al2(SO4)3(ZZ ZZ($$
$$
$$
$$
$ $$
$$
$$
$$
$]Types of questionsHow many molecules of CO2 are there in 4.56 moles of CO2 ?
How many moles of water is 5.87 x 1022 molecules?
How many atoms of carbon are there in 1.23 moles of C6H12O6 ?
How many moles is 7.78 x 1024 formula units of MgCl2?$
$$
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$C$
$$
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$$
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$$Measuring MolesRemember relative atomic mass?
The amu was one twelfth the mass of a carbon12 atom.
Since the mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon12,
the decimal number on the periodic table is also the mass of 1 mole of those atoms in grams.$#Gram Atomic Mass (gam)Equals the mass of 1 mole of an element in grams
12.01 grams of C has the same number of pieces as 1.008 grams of H and 55.85 grams of iron.
We can write this as 12.01 g C = 1 mole C
We can count things by weighing them.$ExamplesHow much would 2.34 moles of carbon weigh?
How many moles of magnesium is 24.31 g of Mg?
How many atoms of lithium is 1.00 g of Li?
How much would 3.45 x 1022 atoms of U weigh?2$
$$s@What about compounds?in 1 mole of H2O molecules there are two moles of H atoms and 1 mole of O atoms
To find the mass of one mole of a compound
determine the moles of the elements they have
Find out how much they would weigh
add them upN]"
"m"\" What about compounds?What is the mass of one mole of CH4?
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
1 mole CH4 = 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
The Gram Molecular Mass (gmm) of CH4 is 16.05g
this is the mass of one mole of a molecular compound.&V/6#"
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Gram Formula Mass (gfm)The mass of one mole of an ionic compound.
Calculated the same way as gmm.
What is the GFM of Fe2O3?
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70 g
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00 g
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g = 159.70 g^en`"
""
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Molar MassThe generic term for the mass of one mole of a substance (in grams)
The same as gram molecular mass, gram formula mass, and gram atomic mass just a much broader term.$ExamplesjCalculate the molar mass of the following and tell what type it is:
Na2S
N2O4
C
Ca(NO3)2
C6H12O6
(NH4)3PO4kF"
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Molar MassThe number of grams of 1 mole of atoms, ions, or molecules.
We can make conversion factors from these.
To change grams of a compound to moles of a compound.0g6g$5$For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH? For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?!For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?"For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?#For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?$ExamplesHow many moles is 4.56 g of CO2?
How many grams is 9.87 moles of H2O?
How many molecules is 6.8 g of CH4?
49 molecules of C6H12O6 weighs how much?$
$#$
$$$
$$
$$
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$$&GasesMany of the chemicals we deal with are gases.
They are difficult to weigh.
Need to know how many moles of gas we have.
Two things effect the volume of a gas
Temperature and pressure
We need to compare them at the same temperature and pressure..ZZRZZ>Z.""""R"">"'!Standard Temperature and Pressure0C and 1 atm pressure
abbreviated STP
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L
Called the molar volume
1 mole = 22.4 L of any gas at STP
T#$$1$
$!$" z(ExamplesWhat is the volume of 4.59 mole of CO2 gas at STP?
How many moles is 5.67 L of O2 at STP?
What is the volume of 8.8 g of CH4 gas at STP? ^%$
$+$
$*$
$$)Density of a gas D = m / V
for a gas the units will be g / L
We can determine the density of any gas at STP if we know its formula.
To find the density we need the mass and the volume.
If you assume you have 1 mole, then the mass is the molar mass (from PT)
At STP the volume is 22.4 L.D#"#""*Examples?Find the density of CO2 at STP.
Find the density of CH4 at STP.H@$
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The other wayGiven the density, we can find the molar mass of the gas.
Again, pretend you have 1 mole at STP, so V = 22.4 L.
m = D x V
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you have 22.4 L of the stuff.
What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 1.964 g/L?
2.86 g/L?6)SummaryThese four items are all equal:
a) 1 mole
b) molar mass (in grams)
c) 6.02 x 1023 representative particles
d) 22.4 L at STP
Thus, we can make conversion factors from them.H $/$
$Z$uA!Percent Composition of a CompoundrLike all percent problems:
Part whole
Find the mass of each component,
then divide by the total mass.F@$$?$7<ExampleVCalculate the percent composition of a compound that is 29.0 g of Ag with 4.30 g of S.WV$8=Getting it from the formulacIf we know the formula, assume you have 1 mole.
Then you know the mass of the pieces and the whole.dc$9>ExamplesCalculate the percent composittion of C2H4?
How about Aluminum carbonate?
We can also use the percent as a conversion factor
Sample Problem 712, p.191\}'$
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v;5The Empirical FormulaThe lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound.
The molecular formula = the actual ratio of elements in a compound.
The two can be the same.
CH2 is an empirical formula
C2H4 is a molecular formula
C3H6 is a molecular formula
H2O is both empirical & molecular
Z$$8$$)$$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$<6Calculating EmpiricalJust find the lowest whole number ratio
C6H12O6
CH4N
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is also the ratio of moles of atoms.
In 1 mole of CO2 there is 1 mole of carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
In one molecule of CO2 there is 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O. Z)"
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"'"=7Calculating EmpiricalWe can get a ratio from the percent composition.
Assume you have a 100 g.
The percentages become grams.
Convert grams to moles.
Find lowest whole number ratio by dividing by the smallest.$>8ExampleCalculate the empirical formula of a compound composed of 38.67 % C, 16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
Assume 100 g so
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220 mole C 12.01 gC
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09 mole H 1.01 gH
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole N 14.01 gN621?9ExampleThe ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C 3.219 molN 1 mol N
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H 3.219 molN 1 mol N
= C1H5N1
A compound is 43.64 % P and 56.36 % O. What is the empirical formula?
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15% H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O. What is its empirical formula?N.
)
)
),2@@:Empirical to molecularSince the empirical formula is the lowest ratio, the actual molecule would weigh more.
By a whole number multiple.
Divide the actual molar mass by the empirical formula mass.
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194 g. what is its molecular mass?"A;ExampleA compound is known to be composed of 71.65 % Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H. Its molar mass is known (from gas density) to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular formula?
Sample Problem 714, p.194$/BCDEFGHIK L
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In this chapter, you will learn:
* to describe how Avogadro's number is
related to a mole of any substance
* to calculate the mass of a mole of any
substance
* to use the mole to convert among
measurements of mass, volume, and
number of particles
* to calculate the percent composition of a
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* to derive the empirical formula and
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ion 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter.Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter What is a Mole?Moles (abbreviated: mol)Representative particlesTypes of questionsTypes of questionsMeasuring MolesGram Atomic Mass (gam) ExamplesWhat about compounds?What about compounds?Gram Formula Mass (gfm)4Section 7.2 MoleMass and MoleVolume Relationships4Section 7.2 MoleMass and MoleVolume RelationshipsMolar Mass ExamplesMolar MassFor exampleFor exampleFor exampleFor exampleFor exampleFor exampleFor exampleFor example ExamplesGases"Standard Temperature and Pressure ExamplesDensity of a gas ExamplesThe other waySummary6Section 7.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas6Section 7.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas.Calculating Percent Composition of a CompoundExampleGetting it from the formula ExamplesThe Empirical FormulaCalculating EmpiricalCalculating EmpiricalExampleExampleEmpirical to molecularExampleFonts UsedDesign TemplateEmbedded OLE Servers
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P\Chapter 7 Chemical QuantitiestDr. Stephen L. Cottonntd:\data\present\$$$$,,Moles (mol)jDefined as the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12.
1 mole is 6.02 x 1023 particles.
Treat it like a very large dozen
6.02 x 1023 is called Avogadro s number.N\$
$7$
$$(
Representative particlesThe smallest pieces of a substance.
For a molecular compound: it is the molecule.
For an ionic compound: it is the formula unit (ions).
For an element: it is the atom.
Remember the 7 diatomic elements (made of molecules)J$5$$$4$$?Types of questionslHow many oxygen atoms in the following?
CaCO3
Al2(SO4)3
How many ions in the following?
CaCl2
NaOH
Al2(SO4)3(ZZ ZZ($$
$$
$$
$$
$ $$
$$
$$
$$
$]Types of questionsHow many molecules of CO2 are there in 4.56 moles of CO2 ?
How many moles of water is 5.87 x 1022 molecules?
How many atoms of carbon are there in 1.23 moles of C6H12O6 ?
How many moles is 7.78 x 1024 formula units of MgCl2?$
$$
$'$
$C$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$Measuring MolesRemember relative atomic mass?
The amu was one twelfth the mass of a carbon12 atom.
Since the mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon12,
the decimal number on the periodic table is also the mass of 1 mole of those atoms in grams.$#Gram Atomic Mass (gam)Equals the mass of 1 mole of an element in grams
12.01 grams of C has the same number of pieces as 1.008 grams of H and 55.85 grams of iron.
We can write this as 12.01 g C = 1 mole C
We can count things by weighing them.$ExamplesHow much would 2.34 moles of carbon weigh?
How many moles of magnesium is 24.31 g of Mg?
How many atoms of lithium is 1.00 g of Li?
How much would 3.45 x 1022 atoms of U weigh?2$
$$s@What about compounds?in 1 mole of H2O molecules there are two moles of H atoms and 1 mole of O atoms
To find the mass of one mole of a compound
determine the moles of the elements they have
Find out how much they would weigh
add them upN]"
"m"\" What about compounds?What is the mass of one mole of CH4?
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
1 mole CH4 = 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
The Gram Molecular Mass (gmm) of CH4 is 16.05g
this is the mass of one mole of a molecular compound.&V/6#"
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Gram Formula Mass (gfm)The mass of one mole of an ionic compound.
Calculated the same way as gmm.
What is the GFM of Fe2O3?
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70 g
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00 g
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g = 159.70 g^en`"
""
""m"F
Molar MassThe generic term for the mass of one mole of a substance (in grams)
The same as gram molecular mass, gram formula mass, and gram atomic mass just a much broader term.$ExamplesjCalculate the molar mass of the following and tell what type it is:
Na2S
N2O4
C
Ca(NO3)2
C6H12O6
(NH4)3PO4kF"
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
"
)
Molar MassThe number of grams of 1 mole of atoms, ions, or molecules.
We can make conversion factors from these.
To change grams of a compound to moles of a compound.0g6g$5$For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH? For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?!For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?"For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?#For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?$ExamplesHow many moles is 4.56 g of CO2?
How many grams is 9.87 moles of H2O?
How many molecules is 6.8 g of CH4?
49 molecules of C6H12O6 weighs how much?$
$#$
$$$
$$
$$
$$
$$&GasesMany of the chemicals we deal with are gases.
They are difficult to weigh.
Need to know how many moles of gas we have.
Two things effect the volume of a gas
Temperature and pressure
We need to compare them at the same temperature and pressure..ZZRZZ>Z.""""R"">"'!Standard Temperature and Pressure0C and 1 atm pressure
abbreviated STP
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L
Called the molar volume
1 mole = 22.4 L of any gas at STP
T#$$1$
$!$" z(ExamplesWhat is the volume of 4.59 mole of CO2 gas at STP?
How many moles is 5.67 L of O2 at STP?
What is the volume of 8.8 g of CH4 gas at STP? ^%$
$+$
$*$
$$)Density of a gas D = m / V
for a gas the units will be g / L
We can determine the density of any gas at STP if we know its formula.
To find the density we need the mass and the volume.
If you assume you have 1 mole, then the mass is the molar mass (from PT)
At STP the volume is 22.4 L.D#"#""*Examples?Find the density of CO2 at STP.
Find the density of CH4 at STP.H@$
$$
$$+
The other wayGiven the density, we can find the molar mass of the gas.
Again, pretend you have 1 mole at STP, so V = 22.4 L.
m = D x V
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you have 22.4 L of the stuff.
What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 1.964 g/L?
2.86 g/L?6)SummaryThese four items are all equal:
a) 1 mole
b) molar mass (in grams)
c) 6.02 x 1023 representative particles
d) 22.4 L at STP
Thus, we can make conversion factors from them.H $/$
$Z$uA!Percent Composition of a CompoundrLike all percent problems:
Part whole
Find the mass of each component,
then divide by the total mass.F@$$?$7<ExampleVCalculate the percent composition of a compound that is 29.0 g of Ag with 4.30 g of S.WV$8=Getting it from the formulacIf we know the formula, assume you have 1 mole.
Then you know the mass of the pieces and the whole.dc$9>ExamplesCalculate the percent composittion of C2H4?
How about Aluminum carbonate?
Sample Problem 711, p.191
We can also use the percent as a conversion factor
Sample Problem 712, p.191J3'$
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;5The Empirical FormulaThe lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound.
The molecular formula = the actual ratio of elements in a compound.
The two can be the same.
CH2 is an empirical formula
C2H4 is a molecular formula
C3H6 is a molecular formula
H2O is both empirical & molecular
Z$$8$$)$$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$<6Calculating EmpiricalJust find the lowest whole number ratio
C6H12O6
CH4N
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is also the ratio of moles of atoms.
In 1 mole of CO2 there is 1 mole of carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
In one molecule of CO2 there is 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O. Z)"
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"'"=7Calculating EmpiricalWe can get a ratio from the percent composition.
Assume you have a 100 g.
The percentages become grams.
Convert grams to moles.
Find lowest whole number ratio by dividing by the smallest.$>8ExampleCalculate the empirical formula of a compound composed of 38.67 % C, 16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
Assume 100 g so
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220 mole C 12.01 gC
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09 mole H 1.01 gH
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole N 14.01 gN621?9ExampleThe ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C 3.219 molN 1 mol N
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H 3.219 molN 1 mol N
= C1H5N1
A compound is 43.64 % P and 56.36 % O. What is the empirical formula?
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15% H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O. What is its empirical formula?N.
)
)
),2@@:Empirical to molecularSince the empirical formula is the lowest ratio, the actual molecule would weigh more.
By a whole number multiple.
Divide the actual molar mass by the empirical formula mass.
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194 g. what is its molecular formula?"A;ExampleA compound is known to be composed of 71.65 % Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H. Its molar mass is known (from gas density) to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular formula?
Sample Problem 714, p.194$/BCDEFGHIK L
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&g4'd'dtb0lbx p@pp?%O=8Chapter 7Chemical Quantities .Charles Page High School
Dr. Stephen L. Cotton//"vB
> How can we measure how much ?You can measure mass,
or volume,
or you can count pieces.
We measure mass in grams.
We measure volume in liters.
We count pieces in MOLES. $$$$
$$$$$$$,,Moles (mol)jDefined as the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12.
1 mole is 6.02 x 1023 particles.
Treat it like a very large dozen
6.02 x 1023 is called Avogadro s number.N\$
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Representative particlesThe smallest pieces of a substance.
For a molecular compound: it is the molecule.
For an ionic compound: it is the formula unit (ions).
For an element: it is the atom.
Remember the 7 diatomic elements (made of molecules)J$5$$$4$$?Types of questionslHow many oxygen atoms in the following?
CaCO3
Al2(SO4)3
How many ions in the following?
CaCl2
NaOH
Al2(SO4)3(ZZ ZZ($$
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$]Types of questionsHow many molecules of CO2 are there in 4.56 moles of CO2 ?
How many moles of water is 5.87 x 1022 molecules?
How many atoms of carbon are there in 1.23 moles of C6H12O6 ?
How many moles is 7.78 x 1024 formula units of MgCl2?$
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$$Measuring MolesRemember relative atomic mass?
The amu was one twelfth the mass of a carbon12 atom.
Since the mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon12,
the decimal number on the periodic table is also the mass of 1 mole of those atoms in grams.$#Gram Atomic Mass (gam)Equals the mass of 1 mole of an element in grams
12.01 grams of C has the same number of pieces as 1.008 grams of H and 55.85 grams of iron.
We can write this as 12.01 g C = 1 mole C
We can count things by weighing them.$ExamplesHow much would 2.34 moles of carbon weigh?
How many moles of magnesium is 24.31 g of Mg?
How many atoms of lithium is 1.00 g of Li?
How much would 3.45 x 1022 atoms of U weigh?2$
$$s@What about compounds?in 1 mole of H2O molecules there are two moles of H atoms and 1 mole of O atoms
To find the mass of one mole of a compound
determine the moles of the elements they have
Find out how much they would weigh
add them upN]"
"m"\" What about compounds?What is the mass of one mole of CH4?
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
1 mole CH4 = 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
The Gram Molecular Mass (gmm) of CH4 is 16.05g
this is the mass of one mole of a molecular compound.&V/6#"
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Gram Formula Mass (gfm)The mass of one mole of an ionic compound.
Calculated the same way as gmm.
What is the GFM of Fe2O3?
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70 g
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00 g
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g = 159.70 g^en`"
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Molar MassThe generic term for the mass of one mole of a substance (in grams)
The same as gram molecular mass, gram formula mass, and gram atomic mass just a much broader term.$ExamplesjCalculate the molar mass of the following and tell what type it is:
Na2S
N2O4
C
Ca(NO3)2
C6H12O6
(NH4)3PO4kF"
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Molar MassThe number of grams of 1 mole of atoms, ions, or molecules.
We can make conversion factors from these.
To change grams of a compound to moles of a compound.0g6g$5$For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH? For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?!For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?"For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?#For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?$ExamplesHow many moles is 4.56 g of CO2?
How many grams is 9.87 moles of H2O?
How many molecules is 6.8 g of CH4?
49 molecules of C6H12O6 weighs how much?$
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$$&GasesMany of the chemicals we deal with are gases.
They are difficult to weigh.
Need to know how many moles of gas we have.
Two things effect the volume of a gas
Temperature and pressure
We need to compare them at the same temperature and pressure..ZZRZZ>Z.""""R"">"'!Standard Temperature and Pressure0C and 1 atm pressure
abbreviated STP
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L
Called the molar volume
1 mole = 22.4 L of any gas at STP
T#$$1$
$!$" z(ExamplesWhat is the volume of 4.59 mole of CO2 gas at STP?
How many moles is 5.67 L of O2 at STP?
What is the volume of 8.8 g of CH4 gas at STP? ^%$
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$$)Density of a gas D = m / V
for a gas the units will be g / L
We can determine the density of any gas at STP if we know its formula.
To find the density we need the mass and the volume.
If you assume you have 1 mole, then the mass is the molar mass (from PT)
At STP the volume is 22.4 L.D#"#""*Examples?Find the density of CO2 at STP.
Find the density of CH4 at STP.H@$
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The other wayGiven the density, we can find the molar mass of the gas.
Again, pretend you have 1 mole at STP, so V = 22.4 L.
m = D x V
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you have 22.4 L of the stuff.
What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 1.964 g/L?
2.86 g/L?6)SummaryThese four items are all equal:
a) 1 mole
b) molar mass (in grams)
c) 6.02 x 1023 representative particles
d) 22.4 L at STP
Thus, we can make conversion factors from them.H $/$
$Z$uA!Percent Composition of a CompoundrLike all percent problems:
Part whole
Find the mass of each component,
then divide by the total mass.F@$$?$7<ExampleVCalculate the percent composition of a compound that is 29.0 g of Ag with 4.30 g of S.WV$8=Getting it from the formulacIf we know the formula, assume you have 1 mole.
Then you know the mass of the pieces and the whole.dc$9>ExamplesCalculate the percent composittion of C2H4?
How about Aluminum carbonate?
Sample Problem 711, p.191
We can also use the percent as a conversion factor
Sample Problem 712, p.191J3'$
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;5The Empirical FormulaThe lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound.
The molecular formula = the actual ratio of elements in a compound.
The two can be the same.
CH2 is an empirical formula
C2H4 is a molecular formula
C3H6 is a molecular formula
H2O is both empirical & molecular
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$$<6Calculating EmpiricalJust find the lowest whole number ratio
C6H12O6
CH4N
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is also the ratio of moles of atoms.
In 1 mole of CO2 there is 1 mole of carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
In one molecule of CO2 there is 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O. Z)"
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Assume you have a 100 g.
The percentages become grams.
Convert grams to moles.
Find lowest whole number ratio by dividing by the smallest.$>8ExampleCalculate the empirical formula of a compound composed of 38.67 % C, 16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
Assume 100 g so
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220 mole C 12.01 gC
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09 mole H 1.01 gH
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole N 14.01 gN621?9ExampleThe ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C 3.219 molN 1 mol N
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H 3.219 molN 1 mol N
= C1H5N1
A compound is 43.64 % P and 56.36 % O. What is the empirical formula?
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15% H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O. What is its empirical formula?N.
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By a whole number multiple.
Divide the actual molar mass by the empirical formula mass.
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194 g. what is its molecular formula?"A;ExampleA compound is known to be composed of 71.65 % Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H. Its molar mass is known (from gas density) to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular formula?
Sample Problem 714, p.194$/BCDEFGHIK L
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* to describe how Avogadro's number is
related to a mole of any substance
* to calculate the mass of a mole of any
substance
* to use the mole to convert among
measurements of mass, volume, and
number of particles
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pf3C:\My DocumentslHow many oxygen atoms in the following?
CaCO3
Al2(SO4)3
How many ions in the following?
CaCl2
NaOH
Al2(SO4)3(ZZ ZZ($$
$$
$$
$$
$ $$
$$
$$
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$]Types of questionsHow many molecules of CO2 are there in 4.56 moles of CO2 ?
How many moles of water is 5.87 x 1022 molecules?
How many atoms of carbon are there in 1.23 moles of C6H12O6 ?
How many moles is 7.78 x 1024 formula units of MgCl2?$
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$$Measuring MolesRemember relative atomic mass?
The amu was one twelfth the mass of a carbon12 atom.
Since the mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon12,
the decimal number on the periodic table is also the mass of 1 mole of those atoms in grams.$#Gram Atomic Mass (gam)Equals the mass of 1 mole of an element in grams
12.01 grams of C has the same number of pieces as 1.008 grams of H and 55.85 grams of iron.
We can write this as 12.01 g C = 1 mole C
We can count things by weighing them.$ExamplesHow much would 2.34 moles of carbon weigh?
How many moles of magnesium is 24.31 g of Mg?
How many atoms of lithium is 1.00 g of Li?
How much would 3.45 x 1022 atoms of U weigh?2$
$$s@What about compounds?in 1 mole of H2O molecules there are two moles of H atoms and 1 mole of O atoms
To find the mass of one mole of a compound
determine the moles of the elements they have
Find out how much they would weigh
add them upN]"
"m"\" What about compounds?What is the mass of one mole of CH4?
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
1 mole CH4 = 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
The Gram Molecular Mass (gmm) of CH4 is 16.05g
this is the mass of one mole of a molecular compound.&V/6#"
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Gram Formula Mass (gfm)The mass of one mole of an ionic compound.
Calculated the same way as gmm.
What is the GFM of Fe2O3?
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70 g
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00 g
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g = 159.70 g^en`"
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""m"FyD3Section 7.2MoleMass and MoleVolume RelationshipsPOBJECTIVES:
Use the molar mass to convert between mass and moles of a substance.*E$E$zE3Section 7.2MoleMass and MoleVolume Relationships`OBJECTIVES:
Use the mole to convert among measurements of mass, volume, and number of particles.*U$U$
Molar MassMolar mass is the generic term for the mass of one mole of any substance (in grams)
The same as: 1) gram molecular mass, 2) gram formula mass, and 3) gram atomic mass just a much broader term.(
$$ExamplesjCalculate the molar mass of the following and tell what type it is:
Na2S
N2O4
C
Ca(NO3)2
C6H12O6
(NH4)3PO4kF"
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Molar MassThe number of grams of 1 mole of atoms, ions, or molecules.
We can make conversion factors from these.
To change grams of a compound to moles of a compound.0g6g$5$For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH? For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?!For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?"For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?#For example!How many moles is 5.69 g of NaOH?$ExamplesHow many moles is 4.56 g of CO2?
How many grams is 9.87 moles of H2O?
How many molecules is 6.8 g of CH4?
49 molecules of C6H12O6 weighs how much?$
$#$
$$$
$$
$$
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$$&GasesMany of the chemicals we deal with are gases.
They are difficult to weigh.
Need to know how many moles of gas we have.
Two things effect the volume of a gas
Temperature and pressure
We need to compare them at the same temperature and pressure..ZZRZZ>Z.""""R"">"'!Standard Temperature and Pressure0C and 1 atm pressure
abbreviated STP
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L
Called the molar volume
1 mole = 22.4 L of any gas at STP
T#$$1$
$!$" z(ExamplesWhat is the volume of 4.59 mole of CO2 gas at STP?
How many moles is 5.67 L of O2 at STP?
What is the volume of 8.8 g of CH4 gas at STP? ^%$
$+$
$*$
$$)Density of a gas D = m / V
for a gas the units will be g / L
We can determine the density of any gas at STP if we know its formula.
To find the density we need the mass and the volume.
If you assume you have 1 mole, then the mass is the molar mass (from PT)
At STP the volume is 22.4 L.D#"#""*Examples?Find the density of CO2 at STP.
Find the density of CH4 at STP.H@$
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The other wayGiven the density, we can find the molar mass of the gas.
Again, pretend you have 1 mole at STP, so V = 22.4 L.
m = D x V
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you have 22.4 L of the stuff.
What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 1.964 g/L?
2.86 g/L?6)SummaryThese four items are all equal:
a) 1 mole
b) molar mass (in grams)
c) 6.02 x 1023 representative particles
d) 22.4 L at STP
Thus, we can make conversion factors from them.H $/$
$Z${F5Section 7.3Percent Composition and Chemical FormulaslOBJECTIVES:
Calculate the percent composition of a substance from its chemical formula or experimental data.*a$a$G5Section 7.3Percent Composition and Chemical FormulashOBJECTIVES:
Derive the empirical formula and the molecular formula of a compound from experimental data.*]$]$uACalculating Percent Composition of a CompoundrLike all percent problems:
Part whole
Find the mass of each component,
then divide by the total mass.F@$$?$7<ExampleVCalculate the percent composition of a compound that is 29.0 g of Ag with 4.30 g of S.WV$8=Getting it from the formulacIf we know the formula, assume you have 1 mole.
Then you know the mass of the pieces and the whole.dc$9>ExamplesCalculate the percent composittion of C2H4?
How about Aluminum carbonate?
Sample Problem 711, p.191
We can also use the percent as a conversion factor
Sample Problem 712, p.191J3'$
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;5The Empirical FormulaThe lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound.
The molecular formula = the actual ratio of elements in a compound.
The two can be the same.
CH2 is an empirical formula
C2H4 is a molecular formula
C3H6 is a molecular formula
H2O is both empirical & molecular
Z$$8$$)$$$
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$$<6Calculating EmpiricalJust find the lowest whole number ratio
C6H12O6
CH4N
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is also the ratio of moles of atoms.
In 1 mole of CO2 there is 1 mole of carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
In one molecule of CO2 there is 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O. Z)"
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"'"=7Calculating EmpiricalWe can get a ratio from the percent composition.
Assume you have a 100 g.
The percentages become grams.
Convert grams to moles.
Find lowest whole number ratio by dividing by the smallest.$>8ExampleCalculate the empirical formula of a compound composed of 38.67 % C, 16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
Assume 100 g so
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220 mole C 12.01 gC
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09 mole H 1.01 gH
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole N 14.01 gN621?9ExampleThe ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C 3.219 molN 1 mol N
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H 3.219 molN 1 mol N
= C1H5N1
A compound is 43.64 % P and 56.36 % O. What is the empirical formula?
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15% H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O. What is its empirical formula?N.
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),2@@:Empirical to molecularSince the empirical formula is the lowest ratio, the actual molecule would weigh more.
By a whole number multiple.
Divide the actual molar mass by the empirical formula mass.
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194 g. what is its molecular formula?"A;ExampleA compound is known to be composed of 71.65 % Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H. Its molar mass is known (from gas density) to be 98.96 g. What is its molecular formula?
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