# Mathematical formulas in HTML 4.0

Many mathematical (physical, chemical) formulas can be written in plain HTML 4.0 without resorting to the Symbol font or to graphics. The symbols below can be displayed on both Mac OS and MS Windows. If possible, place the characters one after another rather than on top of each other. For example, write 1/3 [one third], X¯ [closure of X], X° [interior of X], (SO4)2- [sulfate ion]. You may want to read also a more detailed discussion.

A few symbols used in mathematics and physics
¬ not sign
¯ macron, overline
° degree sign
± plus-minus sign
µ micro sign
· middle dot, centered period
× multiplication sign
÷ division sign
ƒ f with hook, script f
-monospaced hyphen
minus sign
en dash
em dash
dagger
double dagger
bullet
ellipsis
per mille sign, per thousand sign
apostrophe
prime, minute
double prime, second
fraction slash
ohm sign
leftwards arrow
upwards arrow
rightwards arrow
downwards arrow
left right arrow
up down arrow
partial differential
increment, difference
product
summation, sum
infinity
intersection
integral
top half integral
bottom half integral
almost equal to, approximately equal to
not equal to
identical to
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
ΑΩAlpha ... Omega
αωalpha ... omega

(a2 + b2)

square root of ( a^2 + b^2 )

 lim n→∞ an

{ limit n -> infinity } a_n

 ∞ ∑ n = 0 an

{ sum from n = 0 to infinity } a_n

 ∆u  =  Δu  = n ∑ i = 1 ∂2u/∂xi2

Laplacian of u = Delta u = { sum from i = 1 to n } d^2u / dx_i^2

 ∞ ∏ n = 0 an

{ product from n = 0 to infinity } a_n

 b ∫ a f(x) dx

{ integral from a to b } f(x) dx

 +∞ ∫ −∞ exp(−x2) dx =  √π

{ integral from -infinity to +infinity } exp(-x^2) dx = square root of pi