Many mathematical (physical, chemical) formulas can be written in plain HTML 4.0 without resorting to the Symbol font or to graphics. The symbols below can be displayed on both Mac OS and MS Windows. If possible, place the characters one after another rather than on top of each other. For example, write 1/3 [one third], X¯ [closure of X], X° [interior of X], (SO_{4})^{2-} [sulfate ion]. You may want to read also a more detailed discussion.

A few symbols used in mathematics and physics | |
---|---|

¬ | not sign |

¯ | macron, overline |

° | degree sign |

± | plus-minus sign |

µ | micro sign |

· | middle dot, centered period |

× | multiplication sign |

÷ | division sign |

ƒ | f with hook, script f |

- | monospaced hyphen |

− | minus sign |

– | en dash |

— | em dash |

† | dagger |

‡ | double dagger |

• | bullet |

… | ellipsis |

‰ | per mille sign, per thousand sign |

’ | apostrophe |

′ | prime, minute |

″ | double prime, second |

⁄ | fraction slash |

Ω | ohm sign |

← | leftwards arrow |

↑ | upwards arrow |

→ | rightwards arrow |

↓ | downwards arrow |

↔ | left right arrow |

↕ | up down arrow |

∂ | partial differential |

∆ | increment, difference |

∏ | product |

∑ | summation, sum |

√ | square root, radical |

∞ | infinity |

∩ | intersection |

∫ | integral |

⌠ | top half integral |

⌡ | bottom half integral |

≈ | almost equal to, approximately equal to |

≠ | not equal to |

≡ | identical to |

≤ | less than or equal to |

≥ | greater than or equal to |

ΑΩ | Alpha ... Omega |

αω | alpha ... omega |

√(a^{2} + b^{2})

square root of ( a^2 + b^2 )

lim
n→∞ |
a_{n} |

{ limit n `-`> infinity } a_n

∞
∑ n = 0 |
a_{n}^{ } |

{ sum from n = 0 to infinity } a_n

∆u = Δu = | n
∑ i = 1 |
∂^{2}u/∂x_{i}^{2} |

Laplacian of u = Delta u = { sum from i = 1 to n } d^2u / dx_i^2

∞
∏ n = 0 |
a_{n}^{ } |

{ product from n = 0 to infinity } a_n

b
∫ a |
f(x) dx |

{ integral from a to b } f(x) dx

+∞
∫ −∞ |
exp(−x^{2}) dx_{ } |
= √π |

{ integral from `-`infinity to +infinity } exp(`-`x^2) dx = square root of pi