Nature of science:
The need to regard theories as uncertain - hybridization in valence bond theory can help explain molecular geometries, but is limited. Quantum mechanics involves several theories explaining the same phenomena, depending on specific requirements. 2.2
Essential idea: Hybridization results from the mixing of atomic orbitals to form the same number of new equivalent hybrid orbitals that can have the same mean energy as the contributing atomic orbitals.
A hybrid orbital results from the mixing of different types of atomic orbitals on the same atom.
Explanation of the formation of sp3, sp2 and sp hybrid orbitals in methane, ethene and ethyne.
Identification and explanation of the relationships between Lewis (electron dot) structures, electron domains, molecular geometries and types of hybridization.
Students need only consider species with sp3, sp2 and sp hybridization
Hybridization is a mathematical device which allows us to relate the bonding in a molecule to its symmetry.
What is the relationship between the natural sciences, mathematics and the natural world?
Which role does symmetry play in the different areas of knowledge?
Topic 4.3-Lewis (electron dot) structures, VSEPR theory, resonance and bond and molecular polarity
Topic 10.1-shapes of organic molecules
Topic 13.1-transition metal chemistry
Aim 7: Computer simulations could be used to model hybrid orbitals.