Nature of science:
Serendipity and scientific discoveries - PTFE and superglue. 1.4
Ethical implications - drugs, additives and pesticides can have harmful effects on both people and the environment. 4.5
Essential idea: Organic chemistry focuses on the chemistry of compounds containing carbon.
A homologous series is a series of compounds of the same family, with the same general formula, which differ from each other by a common structural unit.
Structural formulas can be represented in full and condensed format.
Structural isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
Functional groups are the reactive parts of molecules.
Saturated compounds contain single bonds only and unsaturated compounds contain double or triple bonds.
Benzene is an aromatic, unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Explanation of the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series.
Distinction between empirical, molecular and structural formulas.
Identification of different classes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, amines, amides,nitriles and arenes.
Identification of typical functional groups in molecules eg phenyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, carboxamide, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, nitrile, alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl.
Construction of 3-D models (real or virtual) of organic molecules.
Application of IUPAC rules in the nomenclature of straight-chain and branchedchain isomers.
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms in halogenoalkanes and alcohols and primary, secondary and tertiary nitrogen atoms in amines.
Discussion of the structure of benzene using physical and chemical evidence.
Skeletal formulas should be discussed in the course.
The general formulas (eg CnH2n+2) of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids should be known.
The distinction between class names and functional group names needs to be made. Eg for OH, hydroxyl is the functional group whereas alcohol is the class name
The following nomenclature should be covered:
- non-cyclic alkanes and halogenoalkanes up to halohexanes.
- alkenes up to hexene and alkynes up to hexyne.
- compounds up to six carbon atoms (in the basic chain for nomenclature purposes) containing only one of the classes of functional groups: alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, halogenoalkanes, ketones, esters and carboxylic acids.
A small proportion of nations have control over the world's oil resources. The interdependence of the countries that are net importers and those that are net exporters is an important factor in shaping global policies and economic developments.
The octane rating (octane number) can be described as a standard measure of the performance of the fuel used in cars and aircraft. Octane ratings often vary quite widely regionally throughout the globe, and are complicated by the fact that different countries use different means of expressing the values
The label "organic chemistry" originates from a misconception that a vital force was needed to explain the chemistry of life. Can you think of examples where vocabulary has developed from similar misunderstandings? Can and should language ever be controlled to eliminate such problems?
Kekulé claimed that the inspiration for the cyclic structure of benzene came from a dream. What role do the less analytical ways of knowledge play in the acquisition of scientific knowledge?
Fractional distillation makes great use of many petrochemicals.
Dyes, pesticides, herbicides, explosives, soap, cosmetics, synthetic scents and flavourings.
Topic 1.2-empirical and molecular formulas
Topics 4.2 and 4.3-Lewis (electron dot) structures, multiple bonds, VSEPR theory, resonance and bond and molecular polarity
Topic 4.4-intermolecular forces
Topic 5.3-exothermic reactions and bond enthalpies
Topic 8.4-weak acids
Option A.5-materials and polymers
Options B.2 and B.7-proteins
Option D.9-organic structure in medicines
Aim 6: Either use model kits or suitable computer-generated molecular graphics programmes to construct three-dimensional models of a wide range of organic molecules.
Aim 6: Experiments could include distillation to separate liquids or the use of a rotary evaporator to remove a solvent from a mixture.
Aim 8: There are consequences in using fossil fuels as our main source of energy. Many products can be obtained from fossil fuels due to the inherently rich chemistry of carbon. This raises some fundamental questions-are fossil fuels too valuable to burn and how do they affect the environment? Who should be responsible for making decisions in this regard?
Aim 8: Discuss the use of alcohols and biofuels as fuel alternatives to petrol (gasoline) and diesel.