Nature of science:
Obtaining evidence for theories-observable properties of acids and bases have led to the modification of acid-base theories. 1.9
Most acids have observable characteristic chemical reactions with reactive metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides, hydrogen carbonates and carbonates.
Salt and water are produced in exothermic neutralization reactions.
Balancing chemical equations for the reaction of acids.
Identification of the acid and base needed to make different salts.
Candidates should have experience of acid-base titrations with different indicators.
Bases which are not hydroxides, such as ammonia, soluble carbonates and hydrogen carbonates should be covered.
The colour changes of different indicators are given in the data booklet in section 22
A number of acids and bases are used in our everyday life from rust removers to oven cleaners, from foods to toothpastes, from treatments for bee stings to treatment of wasp stings.
Topic 1.3 - acid-base titrations
Topic 3.2 - the acid/base character of oxides
Topic 5.1 - enthalpy change of neutralization reactions
Aim 6: The evidence for these properties could be based on a student's experimental experiences.