Nature of science:
Falsification of theories - HCN altering the theory that oxygen was the element which gave a compound its acidic properties allowed for other acid-base theories to develop. 2.5
Theories being superseded-one early theory of acidity derived from the sensation of a sour taste, but this had been proven false. 1.9
Public understanding of science-outside of the arena of chemistry, decisions are sometimes referred to as "acid test" or "litmus test". 5.5
Essential idea: Many reactions involve the transfer of a proton from an acid to a base
A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton/H+ donor and a Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton/H+ acceptor
Amphiprotic species can act as both Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases.
A pair of species differing by a single proton is called a conjugate acid-base pair.
Deduction of the Brønsted-Lowry acid and base in a chemical reaction.
Deduction of the conjugate acid or conjugate base in a chemical reaction.
Lewis theory is not required here.
The location of the proton transferred should be clearly indicated. For example,CH3COOH/CH3COO- rather than C2H4O2/C2H3O2-.
Students should know the representation of a proton in aqueous solution as both H+ (aq) and H3O+ (aq).
The difference between the terms amphoteric and amphiprotic should be covered.
Acidus means sour in Latin, while alkali is derived from the Arabic word for calcined ashes.
Oxygene means acid-forming in Greek, and reflects the mistaken belief that the element oxygen was responsible for a compound's acidic properties.
Acid-base theory has been developed by scientists from around the world, and its vocabulary has been influenced by their languages
Acid and base behaviour can be explained using different theories.
How are the explanations in chemistry different from explanations in other subjects such as history?
Topic 3.2-the acid/base character of oxides
Topic 8.5-non-metal oxides are responsible for acid precipitation
Option B.2-amino acids acting as amphiprotic species
Option D.4-antacids are bases which neutralize excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Aim 9: Each theory has its strengths and limitations. Lavoisier has been called the father of modern chemistry, but he was mistaken about oxygen in this context.