Nature of science:
Evidence and improvements in instrumentation - alpha particles were used in the development of the nuclear model of the atom that was first proposed by Rutherford. 1.8.
Paradigm shifts - the subatomic particle theory of matter represents a paradigm shift in science that occurred in the late 1800s. 2.3
Atoms contain a positively charged dense nucleus composed of protons and neutrons (nucleons).
Negatively charged electrons occupy the space outside the nucleus.
The mass spectrometer is used to determine the relative atomic mass of an element from its isotopic composition.
Use of the nuclear symbol notation AZX to deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions.
Calculations involving non-integer relative atomic masses and abundance of isotopes from given data, including mass spectra.
Relative masses and charges of the subatomic particles should be known, actual values are given in section 4 of the data booklet. The mass of the electron can be considered negligible.
Specific examples of isotopes need not be learned.
The operation of the mass spectrometer is not required.
Isotope enrichment uses physical properties to separate isotopes of uranium, and is employed in many countries as part of nuclear energy and weaponry programmes.
Richard Feynman: "If all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed and only one sentence passed on to the next generation, I believe it is that all things are made of atoms." Are the models and theories which scientists create accurate descriptions of the natural world, or are they primarily useful interpretations for prediction, explanation and control of the natural world?
No subatomic particles can be (or will be) directly observed. Which ways of knowing do we use to interpret indirect evidence, gained through the use of technology?
Radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for diagnostics, treatment and research, as tracers in biochemical and pharmaceutical research, and as"chemical clocks" in geological and archaeological dating.
PET (positron emission tomography) scanners give three-dimensional images of tracer concentration in the body, and can be used to detect cancers
Topics 11.3, 21.1 and options D.8 and D.9-NMR
Options C.3 and C.7-nuclear fission
Option D.8-nuclear medicine
Aim 7: Simulations of Rutherford's gold foil experiment can be undertaken.
Aim 8: Radionuclides carry dangers to health due to their ionizing effects on cells.