Nature of science - 4.4

Scientists spend a considerable amount of time reading the published results of other scientists. They publish their own results in scientific journals after a process called peer review. This is when the work of a scientist or, more usually, a team of scientists is anonymously and independently reviewed by several scientists working in the same field who decide if the research methodologies are sound and if the work represents a new contribution to knowledge in that field. They also attend conferences to make presentations and display posters of their work. Publication of peer-reviewed journals on the internet has increased the efficiency with which the scientific literature can be searched and accessed. There are a large number of national and international organizations for scientists working in specialized areas within subjects.