20.6 - Stereoisomerism
20.6.1 :Describe stereoisomers as compounds with the same structural formula but with different arrangements of atoms in space.
20.6.2: Describe and explain geometric isomerism in non-cyclic alkenes. Include the prefixes cis and trans and the term restricted rotation.
20.6.3: Describe and explain geometric isomerism in C3 and C4 cycloalkenes. Include the dichloro derivatives of cyclopropane and cyclobutane
20.6.4: Deduce the structures of the polymers formed in the reactions of amines with carboxylic acids. Emphasise the need for two functional groups on each monomer. Include the polyamide formed from 1,6-diaminohexane and hexanedioic acid. Include the identification of the repeating unit.
20.6.5: Describe and explain optical isomerism in simple organic molecules. Include examples such as butan-2-ol and 2-bromobutane. The term asymmetric can be used to describe a carbon atom joined to four different atoms or groups. The term chiral can be used to describe a carbon atom joined to four different atoms or groups, and also as a description of the molecule itself. Include the meaning of the terms enantiomer and racemic mixture.
20.6.6: Outline the use of a polarimeter in distinguishing between optical isomers. Include the meaning of the term plane-polarised light.
20.6.7: Compare the physical and chemical properties of enantiomers.
The compound and reaction types in this topic are summarised in the following scheme: