To find the relative molecular mass of a sample of
citric acid by back titration
Citric acid is a tribasic acid which would present
problems if a direct titration method were to be employed. The principle
of back titration is introduced to demonstrate the possibility of
finding the Mr of citric acid by non direct means.
Measure accurately about 5 g of the acid.
Make up a solution containing approximately 40g NaOH (accurately
measured to 2 decimal places) in 1 litre of water
Use a pipette to deliver 50cm3 of this standard sodium hydroxide
solution into a 250ml conical flask containing the citric acid.
Dilute the resultant solution to 250cm3 in a volumetric flask
Titrate 25cm3 aliquots against the standard potassium hydrogen
phthalate using phenolphthalein indicator.
Repeat the titration until concordant results are obtained.
Treatment of results
Calculate the average titre (use only the concordant results).
Calculate the moles of sodium hydroxide remaining in the volumetric
Consequently calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide
used up in the reaction.
If citric acid is assumed to have three replaceable hydrogens calculate
the number of moles of citric acid in the 5 g sample
Work out the Mr of citric acid
The following factors must be considered:
- Accurate recording of raw data
- Presentation of raw data
- Data analysis and presentation
- Evaluation of errors both qualitative and numerical